Studies

This section features the studies tendered and financed by the Energy Community Secretariat. The chosen research topics reflect the objectives set in the organisation's Work Programme. The findings of the final reports, in return, contribute to the work of the Energy Community. Presently there are 37 Energy Community studies in the following areas of work (July 2017):

Electricity

  • Final Report of SEE regional balancing integration study

    December 2014: Final Report of regional balancing integration in South East Europe

    The study aims to contribute to the reform of  electricity balancing in Southeast Europe.

    • provide a basis for the assessment of the prioritisation of integration steps of electricity balancing markets;
    • create awareness of the savings potentials of the different forms of balancing market integration; and
    • incentivise regulators and transmission system operators (TSOs) to reform their balancing regimes.

    It proposes theoretical examples for specific balancing market integration steps, each including at least 2 Contracting Parties’ areas operated by 2 or more TSOs. Each theoretical model represents at least one of the integration targets, pursuant to the Network Code Electricity Balancing, or a case of Sharing of Frequency Restoration Reserves or Replacement Reserves, pursuant to the Network Code on Load-Frequency Control and Reserves.

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  • Development of a market coupling simulator for the eight region

    April 2014: Development of a market coupling simulator for the eight region

    Market Coupling will form an inevitable step forward for the Energy Community Contracting Parties in line with the European Target Model for the Day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Markets. This form of implicit trading of energy, where the commodity electricity is traded in one-step across bidding zone borders together with the cross-zonal capacities, supports the stable formation of prices, reduces transaction costs. It hence promotes the proper functioning and development of competitive markets.
    In order to educate and train stakeholders on the processes related to this method, a close to reality simulation was developed by EKC and DMS Group for the Energy Community Secretariat. 

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  • Study on the development of best practice recommendations for imbalance settlement

    January 2013: Study on the development of best practice recommendations for imbalance settlement

    The Contracting Parties are faced with inefficient balancing markets and typically have only one provider of ancillary services within their countries. This study aims at providing best practice solutions in imbalance settlement mechanisms. It thereby goes beyond the technical elements of system balancing and puts focus on commercial balancing. If was clear from the outset, that the best practice recommendations are to take into account where the Energy Community stands with respect to the 3rd Energy Package implementation.

    To this end, the Framework Guidelines developed by ACER and, based on those, the Network Codes developed by ENTSO-E are of key relevance for the future market design. In the light of this, the content of the Framework Guidelines and Network Codes, where they exist, has heavily influenced the recommendations of the present study.

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  • Upgrade of a service platform prototype for a regional balancing market

    December 2010: Upgrade of a service platform prototype for a regional balancing market

    In 2006 the South East European Electricity Transmission System Operators initiated a project for designing a regional electricity balancing mechanism model for South East Europe. An integral part of the project was the development of a prototype for a computer platform on which the proposed design could be tested. This regional balancing market platform, so-called “BETSEE” software package, was finalised in December 2006 with a dry run. With the financial support of the Energy Community Secretariat, the software was updated in September 2007 and successfully tested during a dry run in 2009 and 2010. 

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  • Development of a coordinated congestion management in the SEE region

    December 2009: Development of a coordinated congestion management in the SEE region

    The study focuses on flow-based coordinated explicit auctions, based on the understanding that this is, for the time being, the target solution for congestion management in South East Europe (SEE). The report provides an introduction to the flow-based allocation (FBA) concept in general and the so-called maximum flow (MF) approach in particular  before addressing several technical aspects of the MF approach.
    It then presents the latest discussions on  auction revenue distribution. Finally the legal framework, organisational issues, operational and organisational structure for implementing FBA in the SEE are outlined.

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  • Legal requirements for establishing a SEE Coordinated Auction Office

    July 2009: Legal requirements for establishing a South East European Coordinated Auction Office

    The study lists regulatory competences, market structures and legal requirements and obligations to be considered when establishing the SEE CAO.  As regards the TSOs participation in the SEE CAO, no amendments in the founding acts, primary or secondary legislation, are required. Moreover, no amendments to the existing licenses are required. In the event of the SEE CAO, the coordinated auction rules will have to be approved by the national regulators. The study urges the TSOs to begin immediately with the drafting of the auction rules. 
    When considering the legal regime in several of the 8th region jurisdictions, the legal capacity of the regulators hinders them from entering into legally binding agreements with other regulators for common monitoring of the SEE CAO. Unless remedied, this will pose a legal obstacle in the efficient and effective monitoring of the SEE CAO.

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  • Study on the services needed for the Coordinated Auction Office tool enabling dry-run

    November 2007: Study on the services needed for the Coordinated Auction Office tool enabling dry-run

    By signing the contract, the Secretariat supported the second phase of the so-called Dry-run for coordinated capacity allocation in the SEE region. It explicitly included the participation of the traders as well as other market participants. The final report gives an overview about the efforts needed to provide the optimal testing environment, including the state of the play in the second phase of the Dry-run (2007).

    In terms of most important next steps, the consultant recommended:

    • mutual agreement of involved TSOs regarding the location (hosting country) of the CAO
    • development and agreement on a common business plan
    • development and agreement on the company agreements (articles of association, syndicate agreements when needed)

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Gas

  • Cross-border gas market integration study

    March 2016: Cross-border gas market integration study

    The study analyses potential geographic scope of gas market integration discussing four regional gas market integration options comprising Contracting Parties and neighbouring EU markets. The options are assessed in their actual potential to directly access new gas sources. The study also makes a cost-benefit analysis on the four market integration options. Here the potential for welfare creation and  improved market functioning improve market functioning in terms of security of supply, competition and liquidity resulting from market integration is evaluated orientating on the indicators of the European Gas Target Model

    The study proves considerable primary benefits of the selected market integration options, ranging from 110 mil EUR to 872 mil EUR for “Ukraine West Integration” i.e. from 3 mil EUR to 62 mil EUR for “Serbia North Integration”, depending on the efficiency of both wholesale and retail markets.

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  • How to get more fair gas prices?

    February 2015: How to get more fair gas prices?

    The price for gas imports varies substantially across Europe and often seems to have no direct relation to how far the gas has to travel to reach its destination.  In recent years, a number of countries have achieved a price change in their import contracts that they perceive as more fair. This report describes these countries’ gas sourcing and the actions that have resulted in lower prices. The report outlines the lessons learnt from these countries’ experiences and assesses the relevance of the different tools used to achieve the price change for the individual gas markets of the Energy Community Contracting Parties.
     It also reviews the nature of the different gas markets in the Contracting Parties. Building on these findings, the study outlines the most relevant tools of each Contracting Party and gives advice for next steps ahead.

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  • Study on Regulation (EU) 994/2010 concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply

    September 2013: Study on Regulation (EU) 994/2010 on measures to safeguard security of gas supply

    This study provides guidelines for implementing the Regulation (EU) 994/2010 in the Energy Community and evaluates possible infrastructure projects to improve security of gas supply in the region. The analysis show that the Contracting Parties have already implemented several elements of the regulation. For example, all Contracting Parties with access to natural gas already have some form of an emergency plan. However, the study concludes that Ukraine and Moldova are the only Energy Community Contracting Parties presently meeting the N-1 criterion, as defined in the Regulation..

    It finds that the Energy Community South-West sub-region could meet the N-1 criterion at regional level, presuming that interconnections between countries exist, when TAP is developed with reversed flow option, together with the construction of all gas storage projects and Slovenia - Croatia 2nd pipeline via Rogatec.

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  • Study on funding Energy Community Gas Ring investments

    December 2011: Study on funding Energy Community Gas Ring investments

    The study examined the optimal framework which would attract investments needed to complete two sections of the future Energy Community Gas Ring. It sketched an overall approach for developing an investment framework appropriate to the conditions on both of these routes. Whilst the ‘Northern Route’ involved Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the ‘Southern Route’ comprised Albania, FYR of Macedonia and Kosovo*. Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Greece and Romania would form the feed-in lines. 
    The study found the “volume and price, and payment risks pose major obstacles to new investments. Regulatory risk poses a medium risk obstacle. In countries where there are few or no gas consumers there will be no private investment in new gas infrastructure unless there are government guarantees in place.“ 

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  • Study on regulation of tariffs and quality of the gas distribution

    August 2010: Study on regulation of tariffs and quality of the gas distribution

    KEMA was contracted to provide an overview of natural gas pricing issues, both distribution and retail, in the EU member states and to benchmark these with the EU best practice. The study also analysed tariff levels, tariff and quality regulations and specific treatments for vulnerable customers currently applied in the in the Contracting Parties' gas distribution and gas supply markets. To this end, the structural indicators of the natural gas market revealed quite different developments and situations in the analysed jurisdictions.
    The study recommended implementation of the necessary regulatory framework and the establishment of an independent regulatory authority where missing.  Both the independence and the decision making powers of the regulators should be strengthened. Whilst regulation should focus on the monopoly network business only, regulation of competitive areas such as supply should be gradually phased out.

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  • Study on the improvement of operational rules for natural gas transportation

    March 2009: Study on the improvement of operational rules for natural gas transportation in the Energy Community

    The study investigated operational developments of gas transmission under the third party access in the Contracting Parties. It analysed current capacity availability, interoperability, transparency and operational rules and discusses the methods used for balancing transmission networks including resort to storage facilities. The study identified the major obstacles and barriers for gas transportation in the Energy Community and provided recommendations on the necessary next steps.  In its conclusions, the study stressed the lack of "TSO to TSO Interconnection Agreements (IAs) at the respective transfer points in any of the Contracting Parties." "Common IAs based on the EASEE-gas common business practices should be put in place at all the current (5) transfer points", the consultants argued.

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Oil

  • Emergency Oil Stocks in the Energy Community Level

    April 2011: Emergency Oil Stocks in the Energy Community Level

    The report examined and evaluated all the main elements of the new Council Directive 2009/119/EC for each beneficiary. It firstly assessed the state of play at national level: supply and demand, existing emergency oil stocks obligation and infrastructure, including legal review. Furthermore, the report comprised a road map that lists the steps needed to comply with the Directive 2009/119/EC obligations. The final section examined the possible regional approach to emergency oil stocks
    As regards recommendations, all the Parties need, to some extent, to enhance their crude oil and petroleum product stockholding systems in order to be in compliance with the Directive 2009/119/EC. All Parties will also have to adjust their legal and regulatory framework. The PDC recommended the Parties to continue to work with the Energy Community, International Energy Agency and other bodies to develop comprehensive and reliable data reporting systems.

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Infrastructure

  • Assessment of candidate Projects of Energy Community Interest and Projects for Mutual Interest

    August 2016: Assessment of candidate Projects of Energy Community Interest and Projects for Mutual Interest

    The final report presents the project assessment methodology which has been applied for all submitted projects. In doing so this report provides an overview of all submitted investment projects as well as the modelling assumptions that have been made and agreed to with the PECI Groups, presenting detailed results and rankings of the projects. Based on the best estimate ranking and the additional information provided by the sensitivity analysis, the Groups were able to make an informed decision on the preliminary list (which does not show a relative ranking of the projects).
    The 14th Ministerial Council adopted the list of projects of Energy Community interest in October 2016. 

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  • Report on realising Priority Infrastructure Projects for Energy Community

    December 2014: Report on Realising Priority Infrastructure Projects for Energy Community

    The report examines the challenges facing the countries that comprise the Energy Community in realising energy infrastructure investments.  It looks at the types of infrastructure projects that are deemed to be a priority by the Energy Community and at the different forms of support available to the Contracting Parties for investments in the energy sector.  It also recommends a series of actions for the Secretariat to consider and to subsequently raise with other stakeholders to improve the preparation, financing and implementation of the large-scale energy infrastructure projects.
    These recommendations are based upon the views expressed by external financiers as to the main challenges in securing investments and on the financial instruments and support programme currently or likely to be available to the countries concerned.  

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  • Development of a methodology to identify Projects of Energy Community Interest

    November 2013: Development and application of a methodology to identify Projects of Energy Community Interest

    The Secretariat contracted a consultant to assist the Energy Strategy Task Force  in the development and the application of a methodology to identify and assess Projects of Energy Community Interest. The purpose of the final report is to explain the methodology which was applied for all proposed investment projects submitted by project promoters until 31 December 2012 or during the public consultation phase (until 29 April 2013). In doing so report also provides an overview of all submitted investment projects, as well as, on the modelling assumptions that have been made upon prior agreement by the Task Force. 
    The project assessment methodology included two phases: a pre-assessment phase and an assessment phase. Upon preparation of the methodology, the consultant assessed the eligible projects based on their merits and ranked them in accordance with criteria and weights agreed with the Task Force.  

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  • Best practice recommendations on regulatory incentives promoting infrastructure investments

    November 2011: Development of best practice recommendations on regulatory incentives promoting infrastructure investments

    The final report describes international practise of investment incentives, the status quo of investment incentive regulation in the 8th region and  identifies room of improvement. E-Bridge Consulting was tasked to develop recommendations on incentives for investments in gas and electricity networks and to outline the necessary next steps. In concrete terms,  a questionnaire on the prevailing investment incentives in the 8th region was developed. Whilst only Hungary, Slovenia and FYR of  Macedonia had implemented the RPI-X regulation, the others have plans to introduce an incentive regulation.  Also, the majority showed intention to introduce a quality regulation in the near future.
    The study found that the ex-ante approval of investment budgets accounts for the most common investment incentive mechanism currently applied by the 8th region national regulatory authorities. 

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Renewable energy

  • Assessment of the Progress in the Promotion and Use of Renewable Energy

    July 2017: Assessment of the Progress in the Promotion and Use of Renewable Energy in the Energy Community

    The modelling results on the expected future progress by 2020 indicate the likelihood by each Contracting Party to achieve the binding 2020 RES target as required under the RES Directive. There are two distinct scenarios concerning the future development of energy demand (i.e. reference and efficiency trends, originally based on CPs NREAPs, but corrected in accordance with actual demand developments). Results suggest that Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova and Montenegro, are expected to reach the given 2020 target with currently implemented and planned policy measures – if energy demand will develop as planned according to the low demand case (assuming complementary energy efficiency measures to be taken or other reasons that justify the low demand path). Despite the expected increase in absolute terms, Albania, Kosovo*, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine would fail to achieve their 2020 RES targets.

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  • Assessing the implementation of Renewable Energy Action Plan

    October 2015: Assessing the implementation of Renewable Energy Action Plan

    The Secretariat’s study analysed the Contracting Parties progress in renewable energy in 2012-2013 based on data provided in each Progress Report and checked consistency with the data in official energy statistics. It identified inconsistencies in data reported with energy statistics mostly related to biomass consumption in some Contracting Parties. Accuracy and reliability of biomass data is instrumental for the Contracting Parties in reaching the 2020 renewable energy targets and an urgent revision of energy statistics based on energy consumption surveys is needed.

    The consultant examined the consistency, effectiveness, relevance and viability of the national legislative measures with the provisions of the National Renewable Energy Action Plans, where these documents have been adopted and submitted to the Secretariat.

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  • Final report on sustainability criteria for biofuels

    February 2015: Final report on sustainability criteria for biofuels

    In autumn 2014, the Secretariat engaged a consultant, E4tech, to provide knowledge transfer to the Energy Community Contracting Parties and Georgia (Observer) on sustainable biofuels in the transport sector. The aim of the support was to deepen the knowledge of stakeholders on the sustainability criteria for biofuels and related certification systems and to recommend appropriate solutions for biofuel uptake. The consultancy support consisted of workshops and national reports.

    The nine final reports were published by the Secretariat on 20 February 2015.  This publication puts the country reports under one cover.

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  • Study on biomass consumption for energy purposes

    February 2012: Study on biomass consumption for energy purposes in the Energy Community

    The objective of the study was to determine the biomass consumption for electricity, heating and cooling based on representative and consistent consumption surveys. This was to result in a report on the share of energy produced from biomass in the gross final consumption of energy in the Contracting Parties. CRES was tasked to carry out biomass consumption surveys and collect data for the years 2009 and 2010. As a next step, it reconstructed the statistical energy data series back to reference year 2005 according to EUROSTAT practice.

    The resulting report provided the data required for the calculation of the 2020 RES target of each Contracting Party according to the methodology used for the EU Member States.

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  • Study on the calculations of 2020 renewable energy targets

    June 2010: Study on the calculations of 2020 renewable energy targets in the Energy Community

    The tasks of this study were fourfold:
    1 Review the current status quo  of renewable energy; 
    2 Analyse the impact of the renewable Directive on the  Parties, considering the available renewable energy potential and the provisions for co-operation among EU and Energy Community;
    3 Based on the methodology prepared by the European Commission, calculate targets to be achieved by 2020; 
    4 Provide an evaluation of the costs associated with the fulfilment of the mandatory targets, investment opportunities, employment possibilities, greenhouse gas savings and reduction in fossil fuel consumption.

     The study calculated a renewable energy share of 24 % in 2020 for the Energy Community. The level of the national shares differed between Contracting Parties (from 19% MO to 36% AL), mainly depending on their current share of renewable energy. It furthermore highlighted a vast renewable energy potential for the region

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  • Study on the implementation of new renewable energy acquis

    November 2007: Study on the implementation of renewable energy acquis in the Energy Community

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact and modalities of a possible inclusion of the new EU Renewable Energy Directive in the Energy Community Treaty. The point of departure was the acquis on renewables as defined in the Treaty (Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC). Further to the state of play assessment, the study identified a set of policy measures which each Contracting Party should consider in order to fully comply with the acquis requirements. It also assessed barriers hindering the implementation and proposed means for overcoming these. 

    The study includes extensive energy balance data on each Contracting Party. The lack of secondary legislation in the Contracting Parties and a relatively limited public awareness on renewable policy issues was explicitly stressed by EIHP. In terms of future action, it urged for a RES target based approach.

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Energy efficiency

  • Impact assessment of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) for the Energy Community

    July 2014: Impact Assessment of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) for the Energy Community

    The 2013 Ministerial Council proposed the implementation of Directive 2012/27/EU in the Energy Community in 2014 with certain modifications. When adopted in the Energy Community, the Directive will repeal Directive 2006/32/EC and set more ambitious energy efficiency targets. This study assesses the impact of the implementation of the Directive 2012/27/EU in the Energy Community focussing on its four key provisions: national targets; exemplary role of public buildings; energy efficiency obligation schemes; and promotion of efficiency in heating and cooling.

    For each provision different scenarios were analyzed using the best available data and assumptions regarding the cost, performance and availability of energy efficient devices in each sector with the aim of assessing the costs and benefits of each scenario.

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  • Energy Efficiency in buildings in the Contracting Parties

    February 2012: Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community

    The main aim of the study was to support the Contracting Parties in their efforts to meet their obligations under the Energy Community Treaty. The study gives a comprehensive overview of status of implementation of the Building Directive in the Contracting Parties. It also tries to facilitate the Parties' future efforts in preparation of NEEAPs and to change attitude toward energy consumption in buildings. The report gives guidelines for preparing inventory of buildings and defining reference building for each category as defined in the EPB Directive.

    The study also provides instructions for developing a common methodology for national database for climate parameters and calculation of the energy performance indicator of buildings. Finally, it provides a model for assessment of potential energy savings, as well as, for calculation of needed investments.

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Environment

  • Study on the need for modernization of large combustion plants

    November 2013: Study on the need for modernization of large combustion plants in the Energy Community

    The purpose of the study is to deliver an overall estimate on the amount of investment necessary for the modernization of thermal power plants located in the Contracting Parties, including benefits that could be obtained by implementing the EU Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and Industrial Emissions Directives (IED). The study concludes that with the exception of Albania and Moldova, all Contracting Parties have a high level of estimated external costs of power and heat generation, mainly due to the average age of the infrastructure as well as a low level of maintenance over the past decades.
    Major investments would be necessary in order to carry out the necessary environmental upgrades that could safeguard the proper implementation of the two directives. Overall compliance costs are estimated at 6,701.6 mil EUR for the LCP Directive and  7,843.8 mil EUR for the IED. Nevertheless, according to the cost-benefit analyses carried out in the study, benefits significantly outweigh the costs in the case of each and every Contracting Party, reaching an average benefit/cost ratio of 17 at the regional level.

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  • Study on the potential for climate change combating in power generation

    March 2011: Study on the potential for climate change combating in power generation in the Energy Community

    The study presents an inventory of the greenhouse gas emissions originating from the Contracting Parties' electricity generation (including CHP). It also entails the projected increase of these emissions by 2020, based on the generation forecast.  It builds on an inventory based on the UNFCCC reporting guidelines, limited to the electricity (including CHP) generation in the non Annex 1 countries that are parties to the Energy Community.
    Based on the assessment of the study, the region's 65 thermal power plants (TPPs) are ranked based on four variables, namely age SO2, NOx and particulates emissions. In terms of future steps, the study outlines a baseline scenario and a more optimistic one and articulates recommendations for better policy-making.

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Customer

  • Development of best practice recommendations for customer switching

    February 2013: Development of best practice recommendations for customer switching in the Energy Community

    Enabling customers to switch their suppliers is a core prerequisite for a well-working liberalised market. Whilst functional in the EU, these procedures have not yet been established in the Energy Community context. To facilitate the process, the Energy Community contracted consultants to develop best practice recommendations for customers’ supplier switching, both for electricity and gas markets.  The study identifies a best practice switching model among the EU-27 using a variety of criteria.

    The basic recommendations for the creation of a competitive framework necessary for any customer switching procedure include, inter alia, the creation of energy market associations, the swift implementation of the Third Energy Package, the implementation of full meter penetration and the entry of new suppliers to the markets.

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  • Recommendations for quality of service data collection, reporting and auditing

    April 2012: Recommendations for quality of service data collection, reporting and auditing in the Energy Community

    In an ideal world, the national regulatory authorities would ensure liberalization of the electricity market without any worsening of the quality of electricity service. The study provides recommendations for the quality of electricity service data collecting, reporting and auditing and the gradual development of the quality of service regulation. The study refers to recently made experience of European Union Member States on the quality of service regulation and uses best practise legislation as a sort of a checklist for all the necessary activities. It addresses the three dimensions of the quality of service, namely the continuity of supply, the voltage quality and the commercial quality.

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  • Development of best practice recommendations for smart meters rollout in the Energy Community

    February 2012: Development of best practice recommendations for smart meters rollout in the Energy Community

    The aim was to develop a set of best practice recommendations for rolling-out smart metering in the Energy Community, taking into account the EU's lessons learned and the specifics of its Contracting Parties.  The cost-benefit assessments regarding smart metering deployment as specified in Annex I of the Directives 2009/72/EC and 2009/73/EC are due by Jan 2014. The ECRB commissioned the report due to the fact that large-scale implementation of smart metering has not yet taken place in the Energy Community and that all Contracting Parties still need to carry out the economic assessment of the long-term benefits and costs of smart metering implementation. 

    The report provides a cost benefit analysis, a description of the different models, including an outline ofthe role of the regulator.  There is a template for the scope of a country-wide cost-benefit analysis, demonstrating the general set-up of a cost-benefit analysis, the steps to perform, including the resulting deliverables.

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  • Study on tariff methodologies, impact on prices and energy consumption patterns

    March 2009: Study on tariff methodologies, impact on prices and energy consumption patterns in the Energy Community

    The study provides a detailed overview about tariff and price evolution in the Contracting Parties and Georgia. It takes a look at the regulatory regimes for electricity tariffs, the level of end-user prices, end-user revenues by supply chain component and prices per consumer type including an analysis on cost coverage and cross-subsidies. The study furthermore assesses the relation between tariffs and consumption and discusses investment self sufficiency, allocative efficiency and productive efficiency for generation, transmission, distribution and supply.

    In its conclusions, it outlines the necessary steps to be taken and provides recommendations on the possible changes in tariff methodologies. Last but not least the study provides a detailed summary of key points of jurisdiction and data.

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Statistics

  • Implementation of the energy statistics acquis

    October 2013: Implementation of the energy statistics acquis

    The key objective of the project is to provide technical assistance to relevant institutions to overcome deficiencies in their statistical systems, as identified and agreed at the Energy Community level. The technical assistance by the consultant, EIHP, is to take place in the form of advising and guiding, providing expertise in developing methodological approach, quality assurance and working procedures to the relevant institutions. This should help the Parties to overcome the gaps in data collection and building their own capacity to establish independent and coherent system of energy statistics. 
    Released in November 2013, the EIHP's assessment report identifies the gaps and obstacles to the full implementation of the energy statistics acquis. It outlines the scope of further technical assistance that the Parties will receive to implement the acquis in the coming months.

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  • Benchmarking of energy statistics, assessments of administrative capacity and resources

    December 2010: Benchmarking of energy statistics, assessments of administrative capacity and resources

     

    In spring 2010 the Secretariat contracted the EIHP to assess the current status of energy statistics and to identify measures and resources needed to streamline the efforts to harmonize energy statistics with the rules and procedures applicable in the OECD and EU countries. The report put for the first time energy statistics systems of all Contracting Parties and most Observers under one cover. All Contracting Parties and Observers are preparing some sort of energy balances, but the methodologies and coverage differ significantly. According to the study, some countries have excellent statistical quality, but their analytical approaches are of low quality.

    Others are faced with the opposite situation – they have excellent analytical approach, but low quality questionnaires and reports from the reporting units. In its conclusions, EIHP named also lack of professional staff as a barrier for further development.

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Competition

  • State aid rules and effectiveness of State aid control in the electricity sector

    April 2011: State aid rules and effectiveness of State aid control in the electricity sector under the Energy Community Treaty

    The study covers State aid and its control in the electricity sectors (generation, transmission, distribution, supply, trade and consumption) in seven of the Contracting Parties to the Treaty. 
    The study consists of three parts. There firstly is a description of the current legal and institutional framework of each Contracting Parties for the monitoring of State aid measures granted at national level, including the specific powers and enforcement practice of the relevant national authorities. There also is a comprehensive inventory of State aid measures adopted by the authorities of the Contracting Parties.
    The Part III assesses and evaluates the legislative framework relating to State aid in the electricity sector and its practical application in the territory of each of the Contracting Parties included in the study. Benchmark for the evaluation is the law and practice of the EU.

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  • Final Report on technical assistance to develop policy guidelines for the distribution network tariffs

    November 2017: Final Report on technical assistance to develop policy guidelines for the distribution network tariffs

    Building on the technical assistance provided, the consultant prepared a final report - with following focus: 

    • Assessments of the problematic issues, possible solutions and evaluation of each solutions (viability, risks and advantages)
    • Recommendation of procedural and substantial dealing with the issues of concern
      - elaboration of criteria for evaluation and recognition of costs component of concern,
      - introduction of incentive based tariffs, with the focus on quality based incentives challenges and best practices
      - allocation of costs component and tariff design.

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  • Study on examining the implementation of EU acquis on VAT

    August 2017: Study on examining the implementation of EU acquis on Value Added Tax in the Energy Community legal order

    The goal of the study was to assess value-added tax (VAT) legislation in the Contracting Parties in order to identify obstacles to market competition and market integration stemming from non-harmonized rules governing the VAT on goods and services in the network energy businesses, and to propose measures for their harmonization. Harmonized VAT rules are meant to ensure a level playing field with regards to the supply and demand of gas and electricity, both between the Energy Community  on one side and EU Member States on the other, as well as among the Contracting Parties.

    Furthermore, the document aims to identify instances of non-harmonized VAT legislation across Energy Community Contracting Parties, and to propose steps for their harmonization in line with the EU legislation.

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  • Study on extending the Treaty to include the rules on public procurement

    February 2017: Study on extending the Energy Community Treaty to include the rules on public procurement

    Shoud the public procurement directives be incorporated into the Treaty, significant adaptations would be required. This deems necessary considering that the Contracting Parties stand outside the legal framework of European institutions. It would be necessary to harmonize the coordination of the procedures, issuing, collection and recognition of documents issued by other Contracting Parties. The implementation process should be backed up by a portal where all energy procurements above certain financial threshold would be published.
    it also recommends full harmonisation of all public procurement and concession rules, as provided in the respective Directives. Such harmonisation would enhance cross-border competition, may automatically resolve the issues of reciprocity and close cooperation in procurement procedures.

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